View Cart

EnviCom DMMG - Dredged material management guide

Today management of dredged material is a key issue, especially when creating and maintaining infrastructure for waterborne transport. Economic, engineering, environmental, regulatory and social aspects all need close consideration. PIANC-PEC has developed this concise Dredged Material Management Guide to support and rationalize this management process. It provides an assessment framework and guidelines to structure the management of dredged material. It includes characterisation of the material, considerations on sustainable relocation and beneficial use, management options for contaminated sediments as well as guidance on the control of the sources of contamination. It stresses the importance of a clear management strategy and long-term plan, control of primary sources of pollution, adequate characterisation and classification and sound environmental and financial impact evaluation. Reference is made to the relevant background literature for which this guide serves as an umbrella document.

€7.00

Add to Cart


EnviCom WG 1 - Management of aquatic disposal of dredged material

Management of dredged material is complex. involving legal. technical. scientific and environmental issues. The report has been modelled on the Dredged Material Assessment Framework (DMAF) of the London Convention which serves as a common and internationally accepted basis for management. The first part describes the characterisation of sediments to be dredged and the disposal sites in physical. chemical and biological terms. This is followed by guidance on assessing the effects of disposal. Guidelines and philosophies which countries and regions use in permitting procedures are briefly discussed. Finally. planning. engineering and operational sections deal practically with dredged material disposal projects. Selected detailed information and examples are given in annexes. Throughout the report emphasis is put on a holistic approach to the management of dredged material. The objective is to aid the development of optimum solutions under economic as well as ecological constraints.

€46.00

Add to Cart


EnviCom WG 2 - Bird habitat management in ports and waterways

Many of the world's ports, harbours and waterways are located in, or are close to, sites such as estuaries and deltas that are important to birds. As such, birds often coexist with navigation infrastructure; this can lead to various potential conflicts with the operation of ports and waterways. The management of birds and wildlife habitat within ports and along waterways is an important international issue, and is among many environmental interests that must be considered. A variety of national and international laws and regulations set out requirements for the protection of many birds and their habitats. These may be specific regulations or elements of wider environmental protection measures. Many port and waterways authorities lack specific guidance for making informed decisions regarding how best to address birds and bird habitat issues. This Working Group report aims to assist those working in ports and waterways by helping to improve understanding of the legal and environmental context within which bird habitat management should take place. It provides a broad introduction on why certain types of habitat are important, and introduces various potentially useful environmental planning and management techniques. For the reader needing to resolve an existing or anticipated problem, it suggests a step-by-step procedure designed to assist in delivering effective management solutions. Finally, the report presents a series of case studies that demonstrate practical experience, enabling the reader to draw on and learn from international examples. This publication was prepared with a number of possible readers in mind. •For the undergraduate or postgraduate student studying ehgineering or another technical navigation related subject, the publication is intended as an introduction to bird habitats and their management. •For those working in ports or for navigation authorities who have had little or no experience in dealing with environmental issues, and may be encountering questions related to bird habitat management for the first time, the publication is intended as a practical introductory guide which should assist in both understanding and resolving such issues. •For environmental consultants and others working in larger ports and harbours and navigation authorities who already have wide experience with environmental issues, it is likely that the case study examples and associated points of contact will likely be of greatest interest. •For all readers, it is hoped that this publication will help to share experiences, offer new ideas, and contribute to overall improvement in the way that bird habitats - whether in the vicinity ports and harbours or along navigable waterways - are considered, monitored, and managed.

€59.00

Add to Cart


EnviCom WG 4 - Environmental management framework for ports and related industries

Since 1992 many countries in the world have adopted the concept of 'sustainable development' as the basis of national environmental policies. In recognition that ports and their related industries can potentially have a considerable impact on the environment, PIANC saw a need for a proactive approach to environmental management. The development of a 'best practice' guide was not considered practical for application world-wide. The aims and objectives of the Working Group were therefore set to develop a generic framework which could be used as a guide to implementing environmental management in ports and related industries to the level appropriate for that particular country. It was necessary for the framework to be sufficiently detailed in order to assist those organisations aiming to conform to the International Organisation for Standardisation (150) through its "Standard 14001, Environmental Management Systems -specifications with guidance for use". In Section 2 the report briefly examines the main international legislation and conventions that must be considered and highlights the general background issues for managing the environment. Section 3 gives an overview of the proposed Environmental Management Framework (EMF). The framework has four main components, namely, Policy, Plan, Act and Continual Improvement. The degree of detail required at each stage depends on whether the framework is being applied at international, national or company level. The EMF is generic in form allowing the socio-economic status of the country to be taken into account and therefore should be practical world-wide. •Component 1 of the EMF aims at developing a general policy statement and relies on identifying and understanding the relevant environmental concerns, legislation and stakeholder views. •Component 2 provides a general management structure for use in assessing all of the information that may impact on the environment and formulating management-acceptable, prioritised strategies and goals. The aim is to deliver environmental improvement. •Component 3 is the mechanism by which the planned improvements are implemented. This involves the setting up of procedures, training, and control of operations. It also involves monitoring to determine whether the actions taken are working. •Component 4 evaluates the effectiveness of the procedures and determines whether they have been carried out, by means of audits and reviews that provide the basis for continual improvement. Sections 4 to 7 focus on each component of the framework, giving guidance on the method of application and the issues that must be considered. Actual methods will depend on the specific objective and problem and on the financial resources, technology and personnel available. Outcomes (or deliverables) from each component of the EMF feed into the next component. Each component can be considered in its own right, but the complete management system is only valid if all components are addressed at the appropriate and consistent level of detail. The report is structured around a series of framework diagrams, which provide an index to the various sections of the report.

€39.00

Add to Cart


EnviCom WG 5 - Environmental guidelines for aquatic, nearshore and upland confined disposal facilities for contaminated dredged material

The management of dredged material is a key issue when infrastructure for canals, navigable inland waterways and ports is being created. If this dredged material is contaminated, the management becomes very complicated. During recent years management techniques have been developed and these are described in "The Handling and Treatment of Contaminated Dredged Material from Ports and Inland Waterways" (PIANC 1996). Owing to the growing awareness to environmental issues, a lot of experience has been gained in the management of Contaminated Dredged Material (CDM) during the past ten years. This experience is in the fields of research, pilots and also the execution of some big projects. From this it can be concluded that Confined Disposal Facilities are a good management tool when dealing with contaminants and that all economic, engineering, environmental, regulatory and social aspects need close consideration. Thus in 1998 the EnviCom decided that it would be beneficial for the Navigational Society to form a working group on "Environmental Guidelines for Aquatic, Nearshore and Upland Confined Disposal Facilities for Contaminated Dredged Material". This became EnviCom 5.

€78.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 11 - Port facilities for ferries - practical guide

Passenger ferry traffic is operated over a wide range of distances and extremely varied conditions. The large growth in Ro/Ro freight and passenger traffic on the short-sea international routes and the associated increases in the size and power of the ferries operating on them have posed severe problems for the Port Authorities. These problems and the solutions adopted are of vital importance to those involved and form the basis of this report. Whilst the experiences and recommendations contained in this report relate mainly to European and Scandinavian ferry ports, they are of universal application and are relevant to ferry routes throughout the world. Modern ferries are designed to provide high standards of comfort and interior design with a greatly enhanced range of passenger facilities. In addition, they are equipped with advanced electronic navigational aids and powerful engines and side thrusters to facilitate safe manoeuvring. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, technical. specifications for six typical ferries are given in Chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with berthing requirements and ship/shore systems. Chapter 5 describes passenger facilities and terminal requirements. The most important lessons and recommendations have been summarised in the General Conclusions contained in Chapter 6.

€39.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 12 - Analysis of rubble mound breakwaters

Working Group 12 was set up to consider the analysis of rubble mound breakwaters with a view to achieving a better understanding of safety aspects. The working group decided to develop the practical application of risk analysis in the design of rubble mound breakwaters by using partial coefficients. Six subgroups, A-F, were established to carry out different aspects of the study. The reports of these subgroups are available in full at the General Secretariat of PIANC. The Main Report summarises the subgroup reports and presents the overall view of the results of the working group. A new system of design for rubble mound breakwaters has been developed whereby partial coefficients can be derived for any chosen probability of failure within the specified service life of the structures. Due to lack of general failure formulae, partial coefficients could only be determined for conventional multi-layer rubble mound breakwaters. The value of the new system has been demonstrated by examples based upon data collected by Subgroup E. A procedure is outlined for using partial coefficients to prepare and optimise preliminary designs. Hydraulic model testing should then be used to refine the preliminary design and provide the basis for the final design. The proposals included in this report should not be regarded as a recommended code for design. They may, however, be useful as guidelines for the development of a new and better way of improving safety of designs by using a more rational method of evaluating probabilities of failure during the life-time of a breakwater.

€33.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 13 - Floating breakwaters - a practical guide for design and construction

Floating breakwaters are being used for the protection of small boat harbors and as shore protection devices at various locations throughout the world. They have numerous advantages and some disadvantages. Advantages are that they can be fabricated at remote sites and deployed in deep water or where foundations preclude normal construction. They also allow better water circulation and have smaller impact on sediment transport and fish migration than do bottom founded structures. Compared to the more conventional bottom-founded breakwaters, more energy is transmitted through the breakwater structures. Considering the practical size and mooring requirements, their usefulness has been assumed to be limited to relatively short-period wave attenuation. Wave periods exceeding 4 to 5 seconds require massive structures or very innovative types of designs.

€33.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 14 - Economic methods of channel maintenance

The report is giving possibilities to lower the cost of maintenance dredging in ports and channels. It aims at being a handbook for port authorities, contractors and individual port engineers with responsibilities in the field of maintenance dredging. The scope of the report comprises planning, data collection, dredging equipment, deposition sites, mode of production measurements, optimization, training, all viewed at in the context of minimizing the cost of maintenance dredging. In this respect the discussion on types of contract and contract conditions, is also of great importance in case the maintenance dredging operations are contracted.

€26.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 15 - Dry Docks

During the 18th Meeting held on 8th October 1984 in Brussels, the PIANC Council decided that the mandate of the Commission for the Study of Locks, Dry Docks and Shiplifts be given to a new commission. In matters concerning Dry Docks the new commission would function within the framework of the Permanent Technical Committee No. II and the date fixed for the receipt of the report on Dry Docks was to be not later than the end of 1987. It was proposed in June 1985 that Mr G.P. Martin, Senior Partner of T.F. Burns & Partners, Consulting Engineers in the United Kingdom, should be appointed General Reporter on the subject of Dry Docks. The proposal was duly ratified by the Permanent International Commission

€33.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 17 (1990) - Inspection, maintenance and repair of maritime structures exposed to material degradation caused by a salt water environment

This report deals with the degradation of materials commonly used in structures exposed to a salt water environment. The materials considered are timber; stone, masonry and unreinforced concrete; reinforced and prestressed concrete; and steel. As required by the Terms of Reference, the Principles of Degradation, Inspection Methods, Maintenance Procedures and Repair Methods for all of these materials, both above and under water, have been considered. Chemical and other forms of degradation have been considered within the chapter on "Principles of Degradation". Both visual and other methods of inspection and maintenance are dealt with in the chapters "Inspection" and "Maintenance". The chapter on "Repair Methods" considers minor and major repairs, and major rehabilitation. The report has been written to give the basic facts in the hope that the reader will be able to refer to the Bibliography for further details. Within this Bibliography both primary and secondary references are given, of which the primary references provide a brief summary. The references have been coded as follows : PD -Principles of Degradation I -Inspection M -Maintenance R -Repairs.

€13.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 17 (2004) - Inspection, maintenance and repair of maritime structures exposed to material degradation caused by a salt water

In 1990 a forerunner to the present report was completed by PIANC PIC II Working Group 17 with the title 'Inspection, maintenance and repair of maritime structures exposed to material degradation caused by a salt water environment'. Since then, PIC II has been renamed MarCom. As expected, that report has become partly outdated since then and therefore, firstly, the present report is intended to update and supersede the early report. Secondly, the scope of subjects is widened with respect to the causes of degradation in order to link fully with the objectives of another recent report entitled 'Life cycle management ofport structures -general principles', 1998, by PIC II Working Group 31 (Supplement to PIANC Bulletin No.99), and referred to herein as the LCM report. As noted in the list of members, some members have participated in both working groups. The present report has been prepared by WG 31 after the LCM report was completed. The group held six meetings for the purpose. In order to avoid misunderstandings in the future, the present updated report has been renamed as "Report of Working Group 17 -2004." RELATED ACTION Beginning in 2001, a new working group, MarCom WG 42, was established with the aim of preparing a report that has provisionally been entitled 'Life Cycle Management of Port Structures -Recommended Practice for Implementation' and forming a sequel to the general principles covered in the above-mentioned LCM report. The preparation is expected to last three years, and some past members of WG 17 and 31 are participating along with new members. A procedure for more frequent amendments to update the reports is also being considered.

€52.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 18 - Planning of fishing ports

The extension of the national limits of fishing grounds to 200 nautical miles has changed the traditional fishing grounds of many nations and has affected the utilization of fishing vessels. The resource problem, with alarming reports on overfishing, makes it essential to plan fishing and ports. Further changes in the fishing industry are occuring in industrial as well as developing countries. This produces demand for effective fishing ports with costbenefit analysis, a useful tool in the dimensioning of fishing ports and their facilities. This report has been written by the members of PIANC - PTC II - Working Group No. 18 and endeavours to point out some of the questions which must be taken into consideration when constructing a new fishing port or making an extension of an existing port. The report is written for a wide audience including governments, town councils, port authorities, fishermen's associations, fishing industries, private consultants, planning agencies, universities and schools. Its purpose is to show in non-technical terms, the most important factors among many others which must be included in the investigations before the final decision on a new port or a port extension. It is the intention and hope of the writers that everyone who is involved or affected by fishing port planning will consider the importance of careful and comprehensive planning study before the construction is carried out. The working group anticipates that most of the future development of fishing ports in the industrialised countries will include restructuring and remodelling of existing facilities and of land and sea areas at existing port sites, in order to facilitate changes that are taking place within the fleet and the handling of the catch. Thanks are given to all members of Working Group No. 18 for providing their help in developing the concept of this report, writing various sections, and carefully reviewing the report. Without their efforts this report would not have been possible.

€52.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 19 - Beneficial uses of dredged material - a practical guide

This report, written for a broad audience, has been structured around a master chart (figure 1), a characterization chart (figure 2), and five supplementary figures (3 to 7). Each figure is supported by text which provides procedural details concerning options for beneficial use and general guidance on the selection process involved. Master Chart The first consideration in the master chart is material contaminant status. If the material is unsuitable for beneficial use or cannot be made suitable by treatment, a decision must be made for disposal. If the material is suitable for beneficial use, the next step in the decision process is characterization of materials to be dredged as illustrated in figure 2. The categorization into different material types in the lower part of the figure will help guide the user to the better option. Although not discussed in this document, these considerations can be partially examined in the PIANC report, Classification of Soils and Rocks to be Dredged. Identifying Beneficial Uses When the material type has been determined, various beneficial uses according to material type are identified in figures 3 to 7. These figures and the supporting text form the heart of the report. They identify and describe potential beneficial uses for each different type of dredged material. When one or more potential beneficial uses are identified, the next steps are illustrated by the master chart (figure 1). For those beneficial uses which are identified, each use should be considered in relation to each suitable site. Following identification of the suitable sites, a detailed study of the technical feasibility should be initiated. If not technically feasible, the material should be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Environmental Assessment For each potential site the effect of policy, law, and regulation should be assessed. If the proposed uses are reasonably free of constraints, then the environmental impact, costs and benefits should be assessed. From this assessment the most desirable acceptable option for beneficial use at a particular site should emerge. Care should be taken to ensure that all of the potential benefits are taken into account. During and following implementation of the project, a program of site monitoring may be established to confirm or document the effects and success of the adopted beneficial use. The following chapters provide detailed information and illustrations on beneficial uses of dredged material.

€13.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 20 - Capability of Ship Manoeuvring Simulation Models for Approach Channels and Fairways in Harbours

Various types of models can be used in ship manoeuvring simulation in harbours and fairways. The most important distinction is physical (scale) models and mathematical (numerical) models. Physical models can be used in two ways, viz. (1) steered by a human being, either on board of the ship or via a camera on board and remote control by the pilot on land, and (2) by using an autopilot system, where the ship follows a predetermined path and the autopilot system generates the rudder and engine orders to the ship. Mathematical models can be incorporated in a ship manoeuvring simulator where real pilot/helmsman's orders are entered into the model and where the modelled ship reacts to these orders. Similarly to physical models with an autopilot system, mathematical models can also be provided with an autopilot system; in this case also the ship has to follow a predetermined line, and the autopilot generates orders to the ship in order to follow this line. The difference between runs made in man-steered models on the one hand, and autopilot models, on the other, is that runs made with autopilots are, in principle, completely repeatable in the same conditions whereas man-steered models contain an important stochastic element and are therefore, in principle, unrepeatable. An important point in physical scale models is the fact that they are not only subjected to length scale, but, due to this, also to time scale (being the root of the length scale for Froude models). This means that steering of a physical model by a human being is subject to an important time-scale factor (the word "important" is used as in most cases this time scale will be 5 or more, given a length scale of 25 or more). This means an important disadvantage of using such models in simulation processes. Physical models with autopilot systems do not suffer from this disadvantage. It should be borne in mind, however, that the use of autopilot systems gives limited information only and a physical model is considered quite costly for such limited information. The advantage of physical models is that there is less doubt, compared to numerical models, about the validity of the model. Physical models are, therefore, still useful in situations where insufficient mathematical knowledge is available, or where physical processes can be modelled only by very complicated and extensive mathematical descriptions, making the mathematical model slow and sometimes unreliable. Examples of this are complicated bank suction situations and the passing or taking-over of other vessels with strong interaction effects. Physical ship manoeuvring models can sometimes be combined with hydraulic models in harbour design (current models, wave penetration models), and then their use can be more obvious. As numerical models become more and more common also in hydraulics, the combination of a physical hydraulic model and a physical ship manoeuvring model cannot very often be realised anymore. Mathematical models are nowadays quite common in ship manoeuvring. They are used in ship manoeuvring simulators and fast-time mathematical models. The most important advantage of a ship manoeuvring simulator over a scalemodel is that it allows real-time simulation, not only since the problem of time-scale is avoided, but also since it allows the representation of the ship, the bridge and the environment on real-world scale. The mathematical models describing the physical process of ship manoeuvring are, depending on the type and extent of the model, considered adequate for not too complicated situatiohs. Most mathematical models are based on physical model tests to determine the various coefficients in the model. The model which is most used is the Abkowitz model; the number of coefficients in this model is not fixed. Due to this, there will be a difference in accuracy between various models. The importance of this depends on the problem which is modelled. Equality between numerical models and prototypes can be shown only by comparison of results in well-known and not too complicated environmental conditions. The latter is mostly only true in deep water, and the comparison is limited to turning-circle, zig-zag and spiral tests and acceleration and deceleration tests. Most mathematical models are able to present proper comparisons in this respect. The behaviour of ships in shallow water is never checked in the real world due to the risks. Therefore, numerical models have to be checked. in such condition by comparison with scale model tests. These comparisons give sufficient evidence of the reliability of numerical models. The quality of ship manoeuvring simulation models is not limited to the quality of the mathematical model describing the ship's motions and path alone. An important point is also the modelling of controls, like rudder, engine and tugs. This modelling is not limited to physics alone, but also to adequate modelling of the real behaviour of rudder, engine, propeller and tugs in terms of reaction characteristics. For ship manoeuvring simulators, there is also the similarity between simulator outfit and the real ship. This has regard to the presence of a bridge, the quality of the outside view, the presence of sound and possible vibrations on the bridge, short-periodic motions due to waves, communication aspects, etc. Most important in this respect are the presence of a real ship's bridge and the outside view. The relevant aspects in the outside view are: a sufficiently large view angle, a realistic view regarding motions (especially rate of turn), a realistic quality of the view with not too much details, and a picture which is as good or as bad as reality. Attention in ship manoeuvring simulation studies is generally focussed on the validity of the mathematical ship manoeuvring model. Although this is a very important aspect, other aspects deserve also attention. This applies to a proper problem formulation, the experimental design method, the choice of subjects (pilots and/or masters), and the method of data analysis and drawing conclusions from the investigation. Moreover, there is still the aspect that it is often not necessary to have a ship in the simulator, which is exactly similar to one specific prototype vessel. In reality ships differ also and pilots are used to this. There are many different simulator designs varying from simple micro-simulators to very sophisticated simulators. It is the working group's conviction that all of them serve a certain purpose and can be used in one way or another in the design process of a harbour or fairway.

€33.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 21 - Guidelines for the design and construction of flexible revetments incorporating geotextiles in marine environment

The following chapters of the report cover all stages of the design of a revetment. The report, however, is restricted to flexible revetments. Revetments are generally defined as : "any composition of natural or artificial materials, deliberately placed in a marine environment to protect from degradation any artificial or natural body of erodible material". The restriction to flexibility excludes all rigid systems such as monolithic structures and vertical seawalls, but still includes all possible additional flexible protection systems, which may be necessary to compensate for adverse effects associated with rigid structures in the marine environment. The most common examples of the latter are bottom and scour protection systems. The Working Group has acknowledged the close correlation between hydraulic and geotechnic loadings, thus the need for integrated design procedures for a flexible revetment. The revetment is intentionally treated as a system with the following constituents as subsystems or elements: a cover layer, one or more sublayers, and a core or base. Various functions may be assigned to sublayers, turning them into filter layers or cushion layers (Chapters 2 and 3). Further, the fact that most revetments are part of a larger scheme or a coastal defence system may require a design philosophy that fits into a wider project or management policy. Therefore, risk assessment, environmental assessment, construction and future management of structures are typical aspects, besides the mere technical design, that are treated. The contents of the final report are summarized below. In Chapter 2, "Systems and Materials", an overview is given of the various materials that may be used. Their functions are also treated and it is shown how they can be combined in the revetment system as a whole, in a variety of environmental conditions. "Design Philosophy" is treated in Chapter 3, where it is described how the functions of the revetment can be identified and defined to be used as criteria for the selection of alternatives. New means aimed at rational optimization of the design are provided by probabilistic design methods, which are shortly outlined while reference is given inter alia to PIANC reports (illustration of which is given in Section 5.8). A practical list of elements for quality systems is provided, applying to revetment design. In Chapter 4, "Design Conditions", methods to determine the environmental boundary conditions are treated. "Hydraulic boundary conditions" (Section 4.2) concentrate on wave and wave-related parameters and under Section 4.3 the parameters related to the subsoil and other granular materials are addressed. Other boundary conditions having usually a much larger time scale and considerable impact are described under "Coastal Morphology" (Section 4.1) and in Section 4.4 dealing with climatic and other conditions. In Chapter 5, "Design Procedures", a variety of design data, considerations and boundary conditions reappear, to be used in specific descriptions of interactions or responses between boundary conditions and the revetment system "External and Ice Loadings", Section 5.3.1 and "Internal Loading" in Section 5.3.2). Further, design considerations, boundary conditions and interactions are combined into procedures, which the designer can fit into his specific problem. Chapter 6 begins (in 6.1) with practical design considerations focusing on specifications, construction aspects, inspection and maintenance, and environmental and climatic conditions. In Section 6.2 "Economic Considerations" the basic principles to assess investment and management costs are outlined. The selection of alternatives based on these considerations is elaborated with an example. Section 6.3 basically consists of a "Designer's Checklist". The report contains a glossary of terms and notation. In the two first appendices, practical examples of the design and performance of existing structures are presented in the form of a case study and an inventory of experiences. The third appendix includes recommendations for future work.

€52.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 22 - Guidelines for the design of armoured slopes under open piled quay walls

Working Group 22 was set up by Permanent Technical Committee II (PTC 11) in March 1991. Good progress was made until 1993 when, due to the economic recession,there was no available time to enable the work to be progressed. Drafting of the report was recommenced in January 1995. The report gives practical guidelines on design methods, in a simplified form for everyday use in a commercial office. The results are based on reasonable approximations, bearing in mind that only rarely can a berth be designed for a specific ship with known characteristics. The guidelines for design are based on the published work of many researchers and, wherever possible, sources have been referenced throughout the text. The Working Group apologises for any inadvertent omissions.

€39.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 23 - Site investigation requirements for dredging works

In planning and executing site investigations for dredging works, a port authority or other employer may intend to obtain data on ground and environmental conditions for two separate purposes: 1.For the design of permanent works with regard to aspects dependent on ground conditions (for example, slope stability, sediment transport, suitability of material for use as fill) and on environmental conditions (for example, channel alignment, mooring forces, berth usability); 2.For planning and costing of dredging operations, in so far as these are affected by ground and environmental conditions. This report is concerned with the requirements for planning, execution, interpreting and reporting site investigations for the latter purpose. Dredging works are major operations which are often complex and costly. They may account for a substantial proportion of the cost of maritime projects. Effective planning and execution of dredging works require knowledge about the material to be dredged and the environmental conditions in which the dredging plant will operate. The high mobilisation and capital costs of dredging plant mean that wrong assessment of basic ground and environmental parameters and consequent selection of unsuitable plant and methods may lead to substantial economic losses. Appropriate ground and environmental surveys are fundamental to the success of dredging operations, from both technical and economic points of view. It is in the interests of both contractor and employer to obtain a full understanding of ground and environmental conditions at the site, in order to ensure the smooth progress of the works and avoid claims and disputes. The survey techniques applicable to the marine environment are different to those applicable on land. The difficulty of working (sometimes in poor conditions), the cost of the specialised techniques which are required, and the often large areas which need to be investigated for dredging projects probably explain why investigations for dredging works are sometimes inadequate. Surveys should be based on a preliminary study of existing geological and environmental data against a background of a preliminary design of what is proposed to be dredged. The study should lead to an overall appreciation of the site and provide a focus on the difficulties likely to be encountered in the course of the works, the types of data which need to be collected, and the areas and depths to be investigated. The field investigations are likely to include one or more of the following: •bathymetric surveys to define water depths in and around the dredging and disposal sites; •geophysical investigations to identify obstacles on or under the seabed (shipwrecks, pipelines, debris etc.); •geophysical and geotechnical investigation of the bed to identify the types of soil and rock to be dredged, and to define their physical and mechanical properties; •investigation of the environmental conditions (hydraulic, meteorological, etc.) which affect dredging operations. Dredging methods and disposal of dredged materials may also be influenced by contamination of the materials to be dredged. The investigation of the extent and degree of contamination is not addressed in this report but attention is drawn to this possibility.

€33.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 24 - Criteria for movements of moored ships in harbours - a practical guide

Modern marine transport requires minimum time for loading and unloading in ports and at marine terminals, a requirement often restricted by ship movements at berth. If the ship movements experienced are too large, cargo handling operations will slow down or even cease and ultimately damage to the ship and port installations may occur. In recent years changes in cargo handling methods have resulted in changes of both ship and port installations, changes which may have large economic consequences. The Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC) therefore commissioned a special Working Group to study the movements of moored ships in harbours with the aim to establish new criteria for acceptable ship motions in safe working conditions (i.e. when cargo handling operations have to be reduced or when a ship has to leave the berth). Further, it was the aim to assess measures for improving safe working and safe mooring conditions. The main objective in establishing criteria was to provide guidelines for port designers and port operations to minimize downtime in harbours. The Terms of Reference for the Working Group are given in Annex A. The Working Group comprised 14 International members (see Annex A) and commenced in June 1990. The final report has been finished in the spring of 1994. This section summarizes the main findings and conclusions of the Working Group.

€39.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 28 - Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls". The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the design of this important class of breakwater. The chairmanship of Prof. H.F. Burcharth was confirmed in 1991, and all members of the WG were appointed in September 1992. Due to the foreseen start, by January 1993, of the three years duration European Community MAST II research project "Monolithic Coastal Structures" (MCS), it was proposed to run the WG 28 parallel to the MCS project in order to be able to include the relevant findings of this project in the WG 28 work. This coordination was accepted by PIANC and turned out to be very fruitful and easy as some members participated in the MCS project. The start-up meeting was held February 1993 at University of Hannover. Further meetings were held October 1993 at CEDEX in Madrid, April 1994 at Port Authority of Genoa, April 1994 at Institution of Civil Engineers London, and February 1995 at the Technical University of Berlin. The final meeting was held in September 1996 at Delft University of Technology. For various reasons the completion of this main report was delayed. This however, gave the opportunity to make use of the results of the European Union PROVERBS project and other recent results. Final editing of the main report was done in a meeting of the subgroup leaders in Delft, August, 2001. The outcome of the work is the present main report, which summarises the contents of four subgroup reports, which can be purchased from PIANC.

€65.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 30/1 - Approach channels - preliminary guidelines

In 1980, a PIANC publication to provide guidelines for approach channel design was published (Reference 1). Since that time new channels have been designed and operations in existing channels have changed. Ship sizes and types, traffic densities and mix have changed and there is now a greater awareness of marine and environmental risk. Because of these factors it was felt appropriate to review good modern practice for the determination of approach channel width, depth and alignment with a view to providing practical guidance to designers. This report provides such information suitable for Concept Design. It is based on work carried out initially by PIANC Working Group 7 (WG 7) and reviewed by members of the Joint IAPH/PIANC Working Group 30. Further reports will be issued by the latter Group in due course and these will consider some aspects of design in more depth. Some of these are briefly discussed in Chapter 5 of this report and are concerned with the more detailed or complex issues likely to be faced in some cases as a design is developed. With this in mind, it is important to stress that this report is the forerunner of a more comprehensive treatment of the subject which will be issued when Working Group 30 has completed its work. The material given below can be used for Concept Design in most cases, but there will clearly be local conditions and requirements which may demand channel dimensions which differ from those obtained from the recommendations given below. If this occurs, such channel designs should not be interpreted as somehow incorrect; they should however receive more intensive, detailed, consideration at the development stage and may require additional features such as enhanced aids to navigation or special operating procedures.

€52.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 30/2 - Approach channels - a guide for design

The design of an approach channel encompasses a number of disciplines including ship handling and maritime engineering in order to design waterways to a desired level of navigability and safety. This requires the assessment of a number of key elements, including vessel size and behaviour, human factors in ship handling and effects of the physical environment. Approach channel design involves designing the layout and dimensions of a port's main water area with reference to: * the alignment and width of approach channels and port entrances; * the depth of approach channels; * the size and shape of manoeuvring spaces within the port, with particular reference to the stopping and swinging areas. The layout and dimensions are of great importance, firstly because in some instances the creation of the water areas and related protection works constitute the biggest investment by far in port infrastructure, and secondly because factors such as entrance width, manoeuvring space and breakwater alignment are very difficult to change or adapt once the port has been built. For deepwater ports which must receive large ships, in excess of 50,000 dwt say, an important problem to be faced is the fact that the actual track of these ships may deviate considerably from the ideal. This is a consequence of the slow response of large ships to rudder action or engine movements. This characteristic may require the introduction of different operational limits for such ships in port approaches and other navigational areas and, as a result, the provisions to be made for safe navigation may have to be more extensive than those for ports catering only for small vessels. Developments in sea transport are continually stimulated by technological improvements and changes in transport demand. If a port and its facilities are not ready to respond to these developments, then delays, congestion, incidents and accidents will result; in short, it will function inadequately. The resultant penalty for the regional and national economy is always heavy. As already observed, adapting an existing port to new maritime requirements is often a difficult, time-consuming and expensive affair, especially if insufficient flexibility was incorporated in the original design. Therefore in the development of new ports, a thorough evaluation has to be made at the outset of the type, size, loading and number of vessels that will use it both now and in the future. Then, because of the inherent inadequacies and errors in these evaluations and forecasts, a maximum degree of future adaptability to new types of ships in the port's approach channels and manoeuvring areas must be incorporated. All of the above considerations lead naturally to a requirement for a logical and rationally-based design process which will allow, among other things, for the determination of the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the port's approach channels and manoeuvring areas. The design process is presented as two stages: 1. Concept Design study, based on initial physical environment data, a design ship and other requirements derived from commercial considerations and forecasts. This leads on to 2. Detailed Design study, involving development and validation of particular aspects. In this report the more complex areas of Detailed Design are discussed in some depth and the computer-based techniques which they use are described. However, rather than just dwell on the detail of such techniques, particular attention is given to the steps which have to be taken by the designer to prepare for their use and interpret the results. Particular attention is drawn to Appendices C and D dealing with squat and the determination of depth in muddy areas.

€52.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 31 - Life cycle management of port structures - general principles

Since 1987 three MarCom Working Groups WG17, WG31, and WG 103 (formerly known as WG42) have been working on the Inspection, Repair, Maintenance and Life Cycle Management (LCM) of Port Structures. Working Groups 17 and 31 prepared three reports. The first report “Inspection, Maintenance and Repair of Maritime Structures Exposed to Damage and Material Degradation Caused by the Salt Water Environment”, published in 1991, was the stepping stone for the second report “Life Cycle Management of Port Structures – General Principles” which was published in 1998. The Working Group 17 report was revised and updated and re-published in 2004. The revised WG17 report contains: • principles and causes of degradation and da-mage of materials • state-of-the-art methods of inspection, maintenance and repair of port structures • a guide and an extensive, annotated bibliography • materials dealt with are timber, stone and masonry, concrete (unreinforced, reinforced and pre-stressed), and steel. WG31’s report “Life Cycle Management of Port Structures — General Principles” contains: • introduction to the concept of LCM by first defining the terms used and what is meant by the term LCM • a chapter on the reasons for undertaking LCM, introduction of the concept of Whole Life Costing. Whilst this is not an essential precursor to LCM, its use at the pre-construction planning phase is an excellent starting point for planning maintenance from the very beginning • onset to the implementation of LCM – the latter of which is considerably expanded in the present report.

€26.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 33 - Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems

The 1984 Report has been part of the design office since it was published and as the practice in technical organisations, International Navigation Association (PIANC) MARCOM decided it was time to update this well used document. Accordingly, Working Group 33 was formed. These guidelines are written for a wide audience including governments, port authorities, private consulting practices, planning agencies, universities and suppliers. Its purpose is to allow designers and suppliers to have a common ground to plan and design. It contains new approaches to fender design with appendices to help and inform. This document gives guidance on types of fenders, fendering systems and layouts, mooring devices and ropes, mooring system layouts for commercial vessels, and recommendations as to their suitability for various applications and locations. The guidelines are intended principally for use in respect of commercial installations by experienced engineers. NOTE 1. Application of this code to naval bases may require additional data from the relevant naval authorities as regards allowable hull contact pressures, especially for submarines, and as regards the distances at which vessels will be off the quay and the configuration and type of mooring arrangements. Sincere thanks is due to all the members of the Working Group No 33 for providing their experience and help in developing the report, writing the sections and reviewing and polishing the report. Meetings of the Working Group Although there were national correspondence groups set up, it was decided that plenary meetings were still required and valuable. In all, nine meetings were held in London, Rotterdam, Brussels, Bilbao and Rome.

€85.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 34 - Seismic design guidelines for port structures

Technical Report written by MarCom Working Group 34. The occurrence of a large earthquake near a major city may be a rare event but its societal and economic impact can be so devastating that it is a matter of national interest. The earthquake disasters at Los Angeles, USA, in 1994 (61 fatalities and 30 billion US dollars); Kobe, Japan, in 1995 (over 6,400 fatalities and 100 billion US dollars); Kocaeli, Turkey, in 1999 (over 15,000 fatalities and 20 billion US dollars); Athens, Greece, in 1999 (143 fatalities and 2 billion US dollars); and Taiwan in 1999 (over 2,300 fatalities and 9 billion US dollars) are recent examples. Although seismic activity varies depending on coastal regions as reflected in the zones shown in Fig. 1.1, earthquake disasters have repeatedly occurred not only in the seismically active regions in the world but also in areas within low seismicity regions, such as in regions lor 2 in the figure. Mitigating the outcome of earthquake disasters is a matter of worldwide interest. In order to mitigate hazards and losses due to earthquakes, seismic design methodologies have been developed and implemented in design practice in many regions since the early twentieth century, often in the form of codes and standards. Most of these methodologies are based on a force-balance approach, in which structures are designed to resist a prescribed level of seismic force specified as a fraction of gravity. These methodologies have contributed to the acceptable seismic performance of port structures, particularly when the earthquake motions are more or less within the prescribed design level. Earthquake disasters, however, have continued to occur. These disasters are caused either by strong earthquake motions, often in the near field of seismic source areas, or by moderate earthquake motions in the regions where the damage due to ground failures has not been anticipated or considered in the seismic design. The objectives of the seismic design guidelines for port structures presented in this report are to address the limitations present in conventional design, and establish the framework for a new design approach. In particular, the guidelines are intended to be : •performance-based, allowing a certain degree of damage depending on the specific functions and response characteristics of a port structure and probability of earthquake occurrence in the region, •user-friendly, offering design engineers a choice of analysis methods, which range from simple to sophisticated, for evaluating the seismic performance of structures, and •general enough to be useful throughout the world, where the required functions of port structures, economic and social environment, and seismic activities may differ from region to region. The expected users of the guidelines are design engineers, port authorities, and specialists in earthquake engineering. The applicability of the guidelines will reflect regional standards of practice. If a region has no seismic codes or standards for designing port structures, the guidelines may be used as a basis to develop a new seismic design methodology, or codes applicable to that particular region. If a region has already developed seismic codes, standards, or established design practice, then the guidelines may be used to supplement these design and analysis procedures. It is not the intent of the authors to claim that these guidelines should be used instead of the existing codes or standards or established design practice in the region of interest. It is anticipated, however, that the guidelines will, with continual modification and upgrading, be recognized as a new and useful basis for mitigating seismic disasters in port areas. It is hoped that the guidelines may eventually be accepted worldwide as recommended seismic design provisions. Earthquake engineering demands background knowledge in several disciplines. Although this background knowledge is not a pre-requisite to understanding the guidelines, readers may find it useful to have reference textbooks readily available. Pertinent examples include Kramer (1996) on geotechnical earthquake engineering and Tsinker (1997) on design practice for port structures. This summary report provides an overview of the seismic design guidelines. The complete guidelines document will be available in a book published separately through Balkema in 2001. Highlights of the book "Seismic Design Guidelines for Port Structures" will include the following Technical Commentaries (TC) : •TC1: Existing Codes and Guidelines •TC2: Case Histories •TC3: Earthquake Motion •TC4: Geotechnical Characterization •TC5: Structural Design Aspects of Pile-Deck Systems •TC6: Remediation of Liquefiable Soils •TC7: Analysis Methods •TC8: Examples of Seismic Perfonnance Evaluations

€26.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 35 - Dangerous cargoes in ports

The Permanent Technical Committee II (PTC II) of the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC) published in 1985 a report on "Handling of Dangerous Goods in Ports", presented by Working Group no 4, with Mr Per Olson of Sweden as Chairman. The concern for safe handling and transport of dangerous cargoes in ports has over the past ten years attracted international attention by port-countries. Several countries have worked out regulations for handling, storage and transport of dangerous cargoes in port areas based on recommendations offered in the PTCII/WG4 report, and on the recommendations and guides published by IMO. Since the publication of this report, major changes have affected the traffic of dangerous cargoes through ports. New regulations came into force, the traffic of dangerous cargoes has increased substantially, the perception of safety has increased due to legislative reasons but also due to a public opinion more and more concerned about environment. In mid 1996, the PTCII decided to update the PIANC recommendations on this subject. The terms of reference of this Working Group were as follows : "The study should lead to guidelines to port designers and port operators in order to indicate how to handle, store and transport dangerous cargoes in ports in order to avoid hazardous situations for the environment and the adjoining areas. The recommendations of the working group will be founded upon the safety rules and regulations already in force in the countries which are PIANC members and they will be presented as international-orientated guidelines." The WG35 members decided not to repeat the various existing nationally and internationally recognised documents on the subject, but to refer to them, to a large extent, in order to draw attention to them. This report therefore provides the most complete possible reference to such guides and reconunendations. The reader is urged to obtain the relevant ones and to study them as a complement to this report. This applies especially to the IMO's "Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities" (IMO 1995)". This report mainly focuses on the planning and construction aspects while also addressing the other considerations relating to the issue of dangerous cargoes in ports. The annexes, apart from the already mentioned very extensive bibliography, focus on several specific topics which were not dealt with extensively in the other documents such as Intermediate keeping. Finally, they give a short overview of the use of Information Technologies (IT) in the field of the transport of dangerous cargoes. It is clear that IT brings about a real revolution in the distribution of data pertaining to dangerous cargoes by facilitating quick access to various databases should the need arise and better targeted actions, for maximum efficiency. Generally speaking, one of the most important tasks of port managers is to install a high degree of safety consciousness into the management of their port. A port authority or berth operator which would spend considerable amounts of money to equip its port with all kinds of costly accident-preventive appliances without developing safety consciousness within its organisation would probably simply waste the money spent. One could even go so far as to say that if a good safety consciousness exists within the port, some preventive appliances could be unnecessary. It is obvious that if management itself does not show concern for safety, the terminal operators and quay operating personnel will not do so either. People in charge of the various facets of the operations must ensure that nothing fails, that every man does his job in a proper manner, that he is properly trained and given the right equipment. This will result in well motivated personnel willing to do their best. The entire organisation will not only gain in safety but also in efficiency. The money spent on safety will therefore provide a good return on investment.

€33.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 44 - Accelerated low water corrosion

Technical Report written by MarCom Working Group 44. Corrosion occurs on unprotected steel structures in any location, and varies in intensity depending on local variables. Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) is defined as the localized and aggressive corrosion phenomenon that typically occurs at or below low-water level and is associated with microbially induced corrosion. ALWC corrosion rates are typically 0.5 mm/side/year averaged over time to the point of complete perforation of steel plate. Occurrences of ALWC have been noted in the literature as far back as the first half of the 20th century. In view of this history and the presence of ALWC-promoting bacteria in all aquatic environments, commissioning owners would be strongly advised to include ALWC corrosion protection on all maritime structures. Currently, national codes for maritime structures do not provide guidance on ALWC with the exception of British Standard Institution (BSI) Maritime Structures Code BS 6349-1 (2000), which provides a general description and warnings. However, there are effective methods to treat, repair, and prevent ALWC, including coating, wrapping, plating/welding, and cathodic protection. Hybrid cathodic protection systems are very effective. Maritime structures should be designed to ensure that high bending moments do not occur near anticipated ALWC sites. If left untreated, ALWC can cause significantly premature weakening, perforation, and collapse of maritime structures. For safety and to protect asset value, owners and operators should actively control the condition of their steel maritime structures through planned inspection, maintenance, and remedial work. Maritime structures should be designed, where practicable, to optimize safe inspection and maintenance. All immersed structures should be inspected for signs of corrosion in the low-water zone. Techniques available for more than 20 years permit high-quality survey, repair, and prevention work in dry conditions beneath the water level using a mobile coffer dam known as a Limpet dam or dry setting installation (DZI). A risk-assessment strategy for the management of port and harbor assets is essential. The residual steel thickness value that triggers immediate repairs will depend on precise analysis of the corroded structure. A measured residual thickness of less than 5 mm may cause difficulties with repair welding and indicate the presence of unidentified thinner areas (possibly pitting) on the structure. Perforations must be avoided as they pose significant health, safety, and operational risks, and they also can complicate subsequent repairs. Optimum repair of thinned or perforated structures will include both cathodic protection and plating, but successful repairs have been completed using extra-thick doubler plating to add strength and sacrificial allowance. A risk-based analysis procedure, which provides a risk-based solution to inspection and maintenance management, is presented and should be used for maritime assets.

€46.00

Add to Cart


MarCom WG 8 - The damage inflicted by ships with bulbous bows on underwater structures

The working group was formed to analyze bulbous bow damage from the points of view of safety, the high cost of repairs and the impact on port operations. The report discusses the interface between ships and docks detailing some conflicts of interests and also discusses the liabilities involved. The report gives information relating to the history and design of bulbous bows, and various types of docks are identified that must berth the bulbous bow ship. After evaluation and discussion of the bulbous bow and the docks, information is presented which reveals the results of a survey of actual bulbous bow damage that has occurred, and discusses the operational aspects of bulbous bow ships while in the harbor and docking. The report concludes that there is no general trend relating to ship building, port design, port operation, ship maneuvers, etc..., and that accidents involving bulbous bow ships and underwater structures are likely to occur in the future. However, recommendations may be given to Port Managers, Port Designers, Ship Captains, Pilots, and Ship Builders. The report lists the previous work on the topic and the references are presented at the end of the present document.

€7.00

Add to Cart


Subvention 2.850€

Subvention 2.850€

€2,850.00

Add to Cart